Overview: Drugs, Sex and Rock and Roll
The 1960’s and 1970’s is defined as the era of Drug, Sex and Rock and Rock and Roll. While Drugs, Sex and Rock and Roll seems to articulate three separate categories, it is more of a cultural definition of the time. The 1960’s through the 1970’s was an era of chaos and liberation, love and war, violent and non-violent protests, drugs and sex. Rock and Roll was influential during this time not only to the counter culture in the influencing drug use, but it also served a higher moral purpose to promote peace and tranquility. Moreover, during the era, there was a shift in the role of the sexes. This new role brought about a “new scenario” that would replace the old traditional conservative relationships. Controversy was inevitable. Events such as: Woodstock, the Vietnam War and landmark court cases like Griswold v. Connecticut would open the door for an evolution of change.


Outline:
I. Overview
II. Summer of Love and the Psychedelic Movement
III.Woodstock and the Peacful
IV. 1960's and 1970's Sex in General:

Birth Control: Griswold v. Connecticut and Black Women
The Studies: Kinsey Report and National Council on Family Relations Studies
Sexual Revolution: The New Senerio

V. Vietnam War:
Drugs
Protest: Campus Protest: Young Hippies and Vietnam Soldiers

VI. Analysis
VII. Works Cited



Summer of Love and the Psychedelic Movement

When the Civil Rights movement was in full swing, and Martin Luther King was assassinated, an “international bout of insanity” began to sweep the nation, particularly on college campuses (Murchison, 18). The Stanford campus was plagued with violent protest including buildings being burnt down with professor supervision, meetings being taken over by swarms of students, and general harassment for those not participating in counterculture beliefs. In 1965 Ken Kesey conducted “Acid Tests,” which led him to advocate LSD; stating, it gave users a new radical way to look at life through a hallucinatory perspective (Gilmore, 1). Customs of the new youth consisted of “use of psychedelic drugs and permissive sexuality.” This brought panic amongst authorities, ultimately leading to LSD becoming illegal in 1966. By June 1967 (the mark of the beginning of the Summer of Love), more intense drugs had hit the scene, including STP (serenity, tranquility, peace). This, however, was far more dangerous of a trip, leaving “users in a psychedelic state for up to three days” (3-4).


JIMI HENDRIX - Purple Haze


As folk music began to blend with electric music, lyrics started to take a strong turn toward political and social issues. “LSD couldn’t help but change a musicians sense of continuity…altering the shape and function of the music’s harmonic structure” (2). Light shows were held, blended with the music, which only added to the hype of the psychedelic experience. Songs such as the Beetles “High with a little help from my friends,” and Jimi Hendrix’s “Purple Haze” only solidified the influence drugs had on the hippie state of mind. That January, bands such as, Jefferson Airplane, and Country Joe and the Big Fish, along with anti-war activist, and Owsley Stanley, who brought with him a large amount of “White Lightning” acid, came together to organize the Gathering of Tribes, proving hippies were not fading as fast as people wanted to believe (3).

Scott McKenzie’s song, “San Francisco (Be Sure to Wear Flowers in Your Hair),” marked the true beginnings of the Summer of Love. Lines from the song, “For those who come to San Francisco/Summertime will be a love-in there/ In the streets of San Francisco/ Gentle people with flowers in their hair” helped form the image of the “flower child” and the peaceful intentions of the hippies (4). In recounting the Summer of Love, an interviewee stated, “There was optimism and genuine love for humanity in the air… [People] didn’t worry about tomorrow” (Roszak et al, 3). Over 30,000 young adults came to Haight-Ashbury (“Hashbury”) in search of ‘true, brotherhood, sanity, and sex’ (Allen, 365). As the Summer of Love died down, so did the use of psychedelic drugs, probably due to the fact that over 5,000 people were on this type of drug during the festival, and it led them to fill emergency rooms as they experienced bad trips (Gilmore, 4).


summer-of-love.jpg



Woodstock and the Peaceful Rebellion
“The role of marijuana and LSD is crucial in the hippie rebellion. Drugs provide a social ritual, a focus of guiltless lawbreaking, and an effective medication to relieve undesired feelings of anger and aggression” (Allen, 364). LSD was slowing being seen as a “low-level” trip, particularly those who searched for excitement. However, marijuana became somewhat more appealing because people could get a similar psychedelic trip in a more abundant availability. By the time Woodstock rolled around people were no longer “ripping off or haranguing others as so many other contemporary gatherings” (Murchison, 21).

Over half a million people gathered at the original Woodstock on 1969. It was apparent that they all came to celebrate love and peace. Music, lyrics rather, played possibly the most important role to the theme of the festival:

Sly and the Family Stone, “Stand!”
Stand!
For the things you know are right
It s the truth that the truth makes them so uptight
Stand!
All the things you want are real
You have you to complete and there is no deal


Canned Heat, “A Change is Gonna Come (I’m Leaving This Town)”
I said I believe…
yeah people a change… will surely come
We'll all have a good peace of mind
Lord, our freedom will surely surely come


Country Joe McDonald and the Fish, “Fish (Fuck) Cheer/ I-Feel-Like-I’m-Fixin’-To-Die”
Well, come on all of you, big strong men,
Uncle Sam needs your help again.
Yeah, he's got himself in a terrible jam
Way down yonder in Vietnam
So put down your books and pick up a gun,
Gonna have a whole lotta fun.

And it's one, two, three,
What are we fighting for ?
Don't ask me, I don't give a damn,
Next stop is Vietnam;


These songs are only some of the few that embodied the desire for peace and tranquility amongst the counterculture. The song by Country Joe McDonald is an accurate representation of the mindset of many American's during the war. People didn't understand the purpose of the war, and knew that thousands of soldiers were dying without a knowledgeable cause. Country Joe McDonald and others like him brought awareness to the problems with the war, and created an anthem for anti-war protesters, which proved musicians influence on the rock and roll culture was not limited to drugs and sex.


Country Joe McDonald - The "FISH" Song


1960’s and 1970’s Sex in General
During the 1960’s and 1970’s there was a “Sexual Revolution” going on which fed the Drugs, Sex and Rock and Roll culture (Schwartz, 362). Dynamics would change with the banning of state laws against a women’s use of contraceptives and the changing roles of men and women in society. The Kinsey report, which began in 1948, put out a study that showed the age at which a person generally had their first sexual intercourse in the 1960’s and 1970’s was ages 17-18 (Reinisch, 5-6). Yet, the Kinsey report showed that many younger high school students were in fact engaged in sexual intercourse (Schwartz, 370). A problem presented itself. While the age of first encounter was getting younger, the knowledge about sexual intercourse and sexually diseases was not adequate. A 1980’s Kinsey Report focused on what American’s actually knew about sex and the results were astonishing. Also, two reports by the National Council on Family Relations studying the sex knowledge of 9th grade lower class boys and a studying on pregnant unmarried adolescent’s knowledge about birth control revealed a result similar to that of the Kinsey Report. From these reports we see a push for sexual education improvements for Americans. Sexual education was seen as the forbidden fruit at one time, but now is being pushed for in general studies of adolescents. Furthermore, this sexual revolution produced a new setting for relationships away from the traditional desires of marriage with a move towards a wish to be single, or a “monad” (Richardson, 273). When combining the new roles of the sexes and the increased availability of birth control it follows that sexual intercourse began to increase, which fed the “Sex” part of the culture definition of the 1960’s and 1970’s as the era of Drug, Sex and Rock and Roll.



Birth Control:
Griswold v. Connecticut and Beyond
us_supreme_court_seal.png
Case: Griswold v. Connecticut

Year: 1965

Decision Split: (7-2)

Majority Opinion: Douglas

Concurring: Goldberg and White

Dissenting: Black and Stewart

Future Cases:

Eisenstadt v. Baird
Roe v. Wade


BACKGROUND:
The Supreme Court has held that a female has a higher risk in engaging in sexual intercourse that does the male. You don’t need to be a doctor to see that a man is unable to get pregnant. If you could reduce the risk of getting pregnant, the high risk would sink to a much less significant level, then a female could participate in sexual intercourse without the natural deterrent of getting pregnant almost obliterate. Thus, sexual intercourse could potentially increase. Enter in the use of contraceptive, or birth control. The legalization of the dissemination of information concerning contraceptives and use of contraceptives would only help to further the 1960’s and 1970’s as the era of Drug, Sex and Rock and Roll.

It was Margaret Sanger who began the “crusade from birth control (Roberts, 93). But, in 1879 Connecticut passed a law that “prohibited virtually all single and married individuals from using contraceptives and physicians from giving advice about” using contraceptives (O’Brien 120). From 1943 to 1965 challenges to the constitutionality of the law were brought to the Supreme Court. The high court rejected to rule on many of the cases because the issue was not ripe for a judgment. In a dissent, Justice Harlan stated:

“I believe that a statue making it a criminal offense for married couples to use contraceptives is an intolerable and unjustifiable invasion of privacy in the conduct of the most intimate concerns of an individual’s personal life”. Poe v Ullman, 367 U.S. 497 (1961). (O’Brien, 121).

Dr. C Lee Buxton and Estelle Griswold, an “executive director of Planned Parenthood League of Connecticut”, opened a clinic that would disseminate information on birth control to women against the Connecticut statute (O’Brien, 360). After only ten days they were arrested. Convicted under the 1879 statute in state court they appealed to the Supreme Court on the grounds that the Connecticut statute violated the due process clause of the 14th Amendment. After being tried and convicted by the state court, Estelle Griswold appealed to the Supreme Court.

THE DECISION:
In a 7-2 decision written by Justice Douglas, the Court decided in favor of Griswold declaring the Connecticut law unconstitutional. The 1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 9th Amendments have, what Douglas deemed “peripheral rights”, and without these “peripheral rights the specific rights would be less secure” (O’Brien, 360). Using NAACP v. State of Alabama [357 U.S. 44 (1958)], Douglas showed that the Court held “freedom of association and privacy in ones association,” seeing freedom of association as a ‘peripheral First Amendment right” (O’Brien, 361). Under the First Amendment there is a “prenumbra where privacy is protected from government intrusion”, and here the law is so broad that it invades the protected “zone of privacy” having “maximum destructive impact upon” marriage relationships (360). Douglas limits the case to married couples only. Thus, single women still could not be given information on or use contraceptives.

WHAT ABOUT SINGLE WOMEN?

In compliance with Griswold v. Connecticut, the Massachusetts state legislature passed a law that barred all unmarried individuals from using contraceptives. Yet what is the real difference between a married woman and a single woman? Does the married woman’s right to privacy exceed that of the single woman? The Fourteenth Amendments Equal Protection Clause would suggest otherwise and would be used to challenge the Massachusetts law. In Eisenstadt v. Baird, 405 U.S. 438 (1972), Chief Justice William Brennan wrote for the six-to-one majority extending the access to contraceptive to “unmarried and married alike” (1237). In his most notable quote from the decision, Brennan held that;

“if the right of privacy means anything, it is the right of the individual, married or single, to be free from unwarranted governmental intrusion into matters so fundamentally affecting a person as the decision whether to bear or beget a child”

Brennan’s line of reasoning here shows that Griswold v. Connecticut was not needed as a precedent to reach the logical conclusion. But one cannot deny that, although Griswold v. Connecticut was not necessary for the logic of the Court, it was in fact a necessary first step that put it into motion.

THE UNFORSEEN AFTERMATH OF THE GRISWOLD CASE

Many conservatives may not realize that Griswold v. Connecticut (1972) would effect the future direction of the conservative political agenda in a way that still penetrates it today. In 1973, Norma McCorvey, better known as Jane Roe, would win the landmark case Roe v. Wade. Writing for a seven-to-two court, Justice Blackmun would use the Bill of Rights penumbra’s from Griswold v Connecticut to legalize abortion in the first- and second-trimesters. Moreover to the conservative dismay, Griswold and Eisenstadt cases played a major role in a (6-3) decision that knocked down a Texas law that prohibited sexual activity between members of the same sex, Lawrence and Garner v. Texas 539 U.S, 123 (2003) (O’Brien, 1306). In the decision Justice Kennedy noted how important the “doctrine of stare decisis” is for the “Court and the stability of the law” (1310)


Black Women on Birth Control: Liberation or Suppression
While birth control was seen as a liberation for women, or and positive advancement in the choice of women universally, the black women have a different view. Black women believed that “the pill alone can (not) liberate anyone, but asset that is gives women critical control over a major part of their lives” (Roberts, 92). Black women viewed birth control through “racial injustice and gender inequality” (92). Birth control was used as a way for whites to secure racial superiority, or at least that is how it was view by black women. In the 1960’s and 1970’s “thousands of poor black women were coercively sterilized under federal programs” (93). For the black women birth control was viewed as suppression, more than liberation. Of course, as pointed out in the Griswold Case the male (black or white) would not understand what is at stake for a woman engaging in sexual intercourse.



THE STUDIES:

While the amount of sexual intercourse increased during the era of Drug, Sec and Rock and Roll, the knowledge of sex, birth control and sexually transmitted diseases were well below par. Three studies looked into what the adolescents at the time knew and learned about sex. It should be noted that from theses studies we saw a push for Sex Education classes, which was only a further push away from the traditional norms that preceded the Drug, Sex and Rock and Roll Era. Many lacked general knowledge of sex or had a distorted view of sex (Schwartz, 361)

KINSEY REPORT:

The Kinsey Report in 1989 will provide us with adequate information on what the sexual education level was of the generation that grew up in the 1960’s and 1970’s. The 1989 study “tested the basic sexual knowledge of…1,974 American adults” (Reinisch, 1). The study showed the “American failed the test” (1). 19.5% of Americans passed with a “C” or better, which means an astounding 81.5% received a “D” or worse (1). What we have done here, is taken questions from the Kinsey Report and surveyed 100 Baylor University students on their knowledge of sex. A survey consisting of 6 questions and an additional 7th question asking the individual to state how many answers they know they got correct. With each question, there was the option to answer “I Don’t Know”. These will be given their own category.


  1. Nowadays, what do you think is the age at which the average or typical American first has sexual intercourse?
    1. 13 or younger
    2. 14-15
    3. 16-18
    4. 19 or older
    5. Don’t know
  2. It is usually difficult to tell whether people are or are not homosexual just by their appearance or gestures?
    1. True
    2. False
    3. Don’t Know
  3. A women or teenage girl can get pregnant even if the man withdraws his penis before he ejaculates?
    1. True
    2. False
    3. Don’t Know
  4. Menopause does not cause most women to lose interest in having sex?
    1. True
    2. False
    3. Don’t Know
  5. What do you think is the average length of the average man’s erect penis?
    1. 2-4 inches
    2. 5-7 inches
    3. 8-9 inches
    4. More than 9 inches
    5. Don’t Know
  6. Most Women prefer a sexual partner with a larger-than average penis?
    1. True
    2. False
    3. Don’t Know


Kinsey Report Questionaire (n=100 Baylor Students)
A
B
C
D
E
1. Nowadays, what do you think is the age that the average or typical american first has sexual intercourse?
6%
32%
50%
9%
3%
2. It is usually difficult to tell whether people are or are not homosexual just by their appearance or gestures?
28%
67%
5%


3. A woman or teenage girl can get pregnant, even if the man withdrawls his penis before he ejaculates?
75%
20%
5%


4. Menopause does not cause most women to lose interest in having sex?
50%
25%
25%


5. What do you think is the average length of the average man's erect penis?
2%
75%
12%
0%
11%
6. Most Women prefer a sexual partner with a larger-than average penis?
35%
50%
15%


*Green percentages represent the correct answer choice*

NATIONAL COUNCIL ON FAMILY RELATIONS: TWO STUDIES:

The National Council on Family Relations (NCFR) saw a need for a revamping of sexual education. NCFR was encouraged to further the effort for sex education by previous studies that had been conducted. In order to push for a revaluation for sexual education a study was done on 9th grade boys from lower-classes.

NCFR quizzed the 9th grade boys over: physical parts of the man and women, conception, intercourse, birth, menstruation, nocturnal emission, masturbation, venereal disease and contraception (Schwartz, 364). If the boy did not understand the question, the researcher would change the answer to accommodate. For example, changing “nocturnal emission” to “wet dreams” According to the Kinsey report a good number of these boys were sexually active when they took this test (370). Consider some of the results:

Only .9% knew the information at a level considered “excellent” (365). The question about contraceptives was answered adequately by more than 50% of the boys (367). Most referred to “rubber,” and a few knew about the pill (367).

They boys were least knowledgeable “about masturbation, venereal disease, nocturnal emission and the menstrual cycle” (362). The most surprising was that 78 out of 87 boys answered “poorly on how babies were born” (367). This lack of information is compounded by the distortion of facts which can lead to many unfortunate situation and continued anxiety (368). Keep in mind that one out of every six girls in Connecticut becoming pregnant before marriage (362). If these boys do not know much about conception, the rest of the correct answers are “suspect” (369-370).

In 1965, NCFR did another study of 180,000 girls, 18 years or younger, who entered a “prenatal services” facility to help with having a child out of wedlock (Furstenburg, 34). Two of every 5 illegitimate children were born to teen moms (34). This study was a push for allowing single women information on birth control, or, more simply, a push for the Eisenstadt case. The problem was that many times these unwanted pregnancies ended up in unwanted marriages (34). Thus, the idea was that, if you can reduce premarital pregnancy you will significantly decrease “the rate of conception, not sexual intercourse” (35). It follows that the amount sexual intercourse would most likely increase with the dissemination of information on birth control to adolescents.

How did these teens view and feel about birth control even before the Eisenstadt opinion? Most of the women knew about the birth control pill and also condom. Thus they were “aware of the birth control of which they have the least access to (pills) and of which they had the least control over (condoms) (39). The study showed that many of the women had fear about the “safety of the pill” (41). One example, if one girl stated that she had heard a women say the pill caused her to “have an ill-formed baby” (41). Of the 22% who did use some form of female birth control, it is noted that they were “often negligent in practice” (39) All though that should have been clear simply by the fact that they are participating in the exam.

Both of these studies is important to era of Drugs, Sex and Rock and Roll because both pushed for sexual education among young teens which previously had been viewed as a inappropriate. Knowledge of safe sexual intercourse would increase the teen confidence in thinking, “surely it won’t happen to me”, and therefore would increase the amount of sexual intercourse during the era.



Man of the Year - Robin Williams on Birth Control



SEXUAL REVOLUTION: ROLE REVOLTION

“Marriage is now longer necessary for men to get sex, or women to get economic support” (Richardson, 273). “Nonmarital cohabitation”, which was seen as inappropriate by traditional standards, was becoming “commonly accepted” and during the 60’s and 70’s it was thought that a “majority of person will experience this lifestyle at some point in their life cycle” (277). In the 1960’s and 1970’s , with a move away from traditional mores and norms to a new individualistic setting took over with regard to relationship “singlehood is becoming an increasingly common status” (271). Between 1960 and 1976, the percentage of unmarried women went from 28% to 42%. (271). At the heart of the issue of this transition was not the base sexual appetites of males and females, but the desire to remain autonomous individuals (271). The fear of losing your individualality pushed the culture further away from the traditional values that defined social life years earlier. Marriage was seen as an “obstacle to personal growth” (273). Those who “embrace the single life,” reject marriage and any “permanent and/or exclusive sexual relationship” are referred to as “monads” (272). Women and men alike could now be economically independent but still receive “emotional support, sex and” have and “active social life” without strings attached (271). The woman was no longer the stay at home mother Mrs. Cleaver was on the TV show Leave it to Beaver. The previous “submissive style women” was being replaced in the 1970’s by the “dominant-style women”, who had “intimate relationships without traditional rules or role” (275). People were becoming “intellectually freed from sex stereotypes” (269).

We can see that although the roles of the players had changed, the human sexual appetite had not during this period. This new setting set a new hope for the possibility of “getting it on with a stranger” (273). What did this new scenario look like?


THE NEW SENARIO:
The setting would be at a singles bar that could be viewed in a series of steps:

Step 1: At the bar.
Women come to a bar generally in groups, while it is the male who comes alone. Upon arrival the male wastes little time before staking out the dance floor and the bar area for potential prospects. The males work has begun.

Step 2: The Move
The women at the bar is marketing her “sexual attractiveness”, while the male markets his “confidence and competency” (272). Males are well aware to watch out for the over eager women who “comes on strong” (272). While it is not unprecedented for the women to make the first move, it is generally still accepted as the guys job to make the first physical move. The women is not completely ideal in the scenario, for she may in fact indicate interest with eye-contact, which may prompt, or invite, the male to make his way over to her pack of women in order to make his move. Men do in fact need a little hint every once in awhile.

Step 3: Dancing
Generally the male will, if available, ask the women to dance. The woman during the dancing has a “dead pen expression” (272). This means she makes generally little if any eye contact with her partner and is generally focused on her dancing. She does not want to appear to attracted to the male because that would discourage other male prospects from the hunt. As the evening progresses “touching” normally increases between the two parties (272).

Step 4: The Fruits of His Labor
Towards the end of the evening the man asks the women if she wants to “consummate the evening”, in hope of receiving the “fruits of his labor” (272). The Female has 2 options:

1. She can agree to go back to his place in hopes of latter negotiating for a “real date” (272)
2. or, she was make an excuse (generally a friend who tagged along with her provides the best out)


Step 5: (Optional) Rejection
If the women decides to choose option #2, the male will generally take out his anger on a bar glass or a bathroom urinal.




THE VIETNAM WAR:

DRUGS:

The Vietnam War played an important part in the drug movement during the 1950's through the 1970's. In Vietnam, American troops could get marijuana from local retailing merchants for $1.50. Marijuana grew wild in the countryside and were distributed in cigarette packages.

A medical psychiatrist who counseled Vietnam war veterans said, "marijuana in Vietnam is cheap, easy to find, and potent. The drug is everywhere. All a person has to do to get it is say the word Khan Sa." (Kuzmarov, 347)

Even with the ease of availability, only 35% of soldiers tried marijuana. Less than 10% of soldiers admitted to using marijuana while on duty. Most soldiers used drugs as a way to relax and calm down after battle.

Americans back home were anxious about drug use among soldiers because the media hyped it up, saying that up to 90% of soldiers were using. These fabrications instilled a fear in conservative Americans; a fear that the soldiers were responsible for the drastic growth of drug use into American society. On the contrary, studies show that less than 10% of war veterans used drugs upon returning to the United States (Kuzmarov, 347).

The crime rate in America was also going up and 'veteran druggies' were blamed for this. But studies show that less than 1% of veterans committed any criminal offenses after returning to the United States. In fact, war veterans generally achieved higher education and income levels to their peers (Kuzmarov, 348).

Americans back home were either using drugs, or extremely worried about the cultural changes going on. Under President Kennedy, the Federal Bureau of Narcotics made drug control a high priority in national security. In 1962, Kennedy invested $500,000 worth of narcotic destruction methods, targeting marijuana growers (Kuzmarov, 346).

During the hippie movement, the prohibition of drug use was a failure. The war on drugs ultimately did nothing but attempt to ease the minds of conservatives across America and the lessen the fear that U.S. soldiers were addicted (Kuzmarov, 362).

Even though studies clearly show that the Vietnam war veterans were not completely responsible for the growth of drug use in America, the media had a hand in increasing drug use by putting such an emphasize on it. Because of the fabrications from the media and the emphasis on the War on Drugs backed by the Kennedy administration, the idea of using drugs became a prominent idea in young Americans. This hippie movement was well on it's way, and conservative Americans needed someone to blame for the upheaval of American Society.

Warped in a culture of fear, Americans falsely believed that their culture and social makeup was being torn apart by 'half crazed and doped-up soldiers, from whom nobody was safe.' (Kuzmarov, 348)

PROTESTS:
During the Vietnam war many protests occurred. The young hippies were very passionate about ending the war, which caused more conflict police. There were also soldiers who fought in Vietnam, but were very against the war. These anti-war protest groups were made up of people with a common bond and desire to end the war. These groups provided a place of community for the individuals involved, which enhanced the quality of the protest groups because they knew one another and supported each other. Both soldiers and young hippies impacted the cultural changes of this time greatly.


CAMPUS PROTEST: YOUNG HIPPIES:
The University of South Carolina is a good example of the type of student protests going on during the late 1960s through the early 1970s. At the University of South Carolina (USC), a small group of conservative student challenged the student government to allow more personal freedom on campus; freedoms such as no dress code, less censorship of ideas, sale of beer on campus, and liberalizing of dorm curfew rules. For the most part these attempts failed, but it was these students that soon lead their piers in protests and promoted the ending of the war (Grose, 154-6). A leading student organization named AWARE, was formed on USC's campus in 1966. This was a group that promoted the "dissemination of ideas which will lead students into an awareness of the full spectrum of political and social thought." AWARE wanted to educate the student population about political beliefs and governmental decisions. AWARE and another group called the South Carolina Revolutionary Youth Movement (SCRYM) actively protested the Vietnam War (Grose, 157). One of the largest protests held at USC was in 1969 when both groups sponsored a "Bring the War Home" rally on USC campus. Several hundred students attended, protesting an end to the war.

The actions of AWARE and groups like them were a huge threat to the university and state and federal officials. It was not uncommon for FBI agents to gather information about members of these activists groups and give it to local police. Local police were informed about 'pot parties' and would arrest students in hopes of destroying these groups (Grose, 157-8). Interestingly enough, when groups like AWARE were being shut down by school officials and police, other students began to question the repressive actions of police and were angered by them. This got more students involved in anti-war protests.


VIETNAM SOLDIERS:

Another very influential group of people that protested the war were the American soldiers fighting in Vietnam. These soldiers saw thousands of Vietnamese and hundreds of Americans dying for no reason every week (Cortright, 208).

In the fall of 1969, a petition signed exclusively by active-duty service members calling for an immediate end to the war, was published in the New York Times. This petition had a dramatic impact and help build momentum for anti-war protesters (Cortright, 208-09). Vietnam soldiers were some of the most passionate protesters. Commanders of the army instructed soldiers to keep their opinions to themselves. When these orders were ignored some commanders made threats to soldiers. These threats encouraged anti-war protests and rebellion. Some soldiers signed Article 138, which was a complaint vowing to fight the army's harassment (Cortright, 210). the anti-war sentiment spread throughout the entire army, reaching every base where U.S. troops were stationed. The soldiers who protested had a powerful effect on the ending of the Vietnam War. By 1969 and 1970, the army in Vietnam was unable to even function as an effective force. Nixon was forced to pull troops out of Vietnam to save the American army from complete ruin (Cortright, 214). The younger generation was greatly influenced by musicians, of whom almost all opposed the war. Protests encouraged all the other cultural changes during this time because these groups became a community, a place of belonging. Vietnam war soldiers played an even larger role with their anti-war protests because they were the men on the front lines, seeing the total destruction of the war for both Vietnam and America.





Analysis:
The effects of the age of Drugs, Sex and Rock and Roll extend well beyond the 1960’s and 1970’s. To start, it is clear that although soldiers themselves did not have much impact on the drug movement in America, the culture was influenced by war veterans indirectly because the media presented these soldiers as druggies. These false ideas about soldiers brought awareness to drugs and with the societies’ new openness to try anything, drugs became more prominent.


A larger influence on the drug movement in America was from Rock and Roll musicians. Many of the rock & roll musicians used acid, were opposed to the Vietnam war, and helped create this counter-culture of “hippies.” The Bands’ Rick Danko, Canned Heats’ Alan Wilson, Butterfield Blues Bands’ Paul Betterfield, Grateful Deads’ Jerry Garcia, Tim Hardin, Janis Joplin, and The Whos’ Keith Moon were all ultimately subject to death from either drug overdose or complications due to drug addiction. A large majority of society was dismissive of rock & roll because it was though to be unserious and decadent; not relevant to social or political issues. But in 1964, bands like the Beatles and Bob Dylan helped change that viewpoint. People began to appreciate the poetic language and depth of this new genre of music (Mikal, 2).

Furthermore, the landmark case Griswold vs. Connecticut laid the groundwork for two of the most controversial cases for today’s society: namely Roe vs. Wade and Lawrence vs. Texas. Allowing women the ability to receive information about and use contraceptives freely brought relief for many women about the risk of sexual intercourse. As a result, sexual intercourse between men and women increased. Today, there is not the high level of fear about birth control that was evident in the 60’s and 70’s. But just because the amount of sex increases, that does not mean that people have become more knowledgeable about sexual intercourse. As our survey shows, the average Baylor Student failed.




WORKS CITED:
Allen, James. 1968. Flight from Violence: Hippies and the Green Rebellion. American Journal of Psychiatry 125:364-330.
Cortright, David. 2006. Reminiscences of Resistance. Peace Review 18: 207-214.
Furstenberg Jr., Frank. "ncfr catalyzing research theory and practice." Birth Control Knowledge and Attitudes among Unmarried Pregnant Adolescents 31, no. 1 (1969): 34-42. http://www.jstor.org/stable/350004 (accessed Mar 4).
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